Faculty   Faculty of Arts
Department of Microbiology
 
Head of Deparment : Prof. Amar P. Garg
The department was established only in 1998. During 1999, the department has successfully organized short-term courses on Medical Microbiology (by Dr. MEd. D. Rimek of the University of Heidelberg) and Medical Mycology (by PD Dr. med. Reinhard Kappe, of the University of Heidelberg, Germany). The department has been recognized by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), Bonn (Germany) for the exchange of students under “The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience (IAESTE)” program. The department is receiving the active support for strengthening of teaching and research from various national and foreign organizations. The department has also organized seminars, lectures, workshops and science exhibitions. The department has established the Microbial Culture Collection Centre with the help of the University and the U.P. State Government.
 
Fields of Specialization:
Medical Microbiology, Industrial Microbiology, Agricultural Microbiology and Environmental Microbiology.
 
 
Website: www.microbioccs.org
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Post Graduate
M.Sc.(Microbiology) is a four semester(two years) course with regular fee structure.
M.Sc.(Applied Microbiology) under self-financed with specialization in Medical/Industrial/ Agricultural/Environmental Microbiology. This is four semester (two years) course which includes one semester project work.
M.Sc.(Bioinformatics) under self-finance scheme, this is a 4 semester course including the project work.
 
M.Phil. Program:
It is a two semester course plus project work with regular fee structure.
 
Ph.D. Program:
The Department runs full time Ph.D. Program in the aforesaid specialized fields with regular fee structure
 
Regular Post-Graduate Courses
M.Sc. (Microbiology): It is a two years (four semesters) programme with regular fee structure.
M.Phil (Microbiology): It is a one year (two semesters) programme + Project work with regular fee structure.
Ph.D. Programme The Department runs full time Ph.D. Programme in the aforesaid specialized fields with regular fee structure
 
Eligibility Conditions & Intake (Number of Seats)
M.Phil. (Microbiology) 10 Master’s Degree in Microbiology/Applied Microbiology/Medical Microbiology.
M.Sc. (Microbiology) 20 B.Sc. degree with Chemistry, Botany and Zoology/ B.Sc. (M.L.T.) /B.Sc. (Microbiology/Biotechnology), / B.Pharma/ B.V.Sc./ M.B.B.S.
Ph.D. (Microbiology) -----As per Ph.D. ordinances----- .
 
Eligibility :
A candidate must possess a post-graduate degree from any recognized University in India or abroad in Microbiology / Biotechnology.
 
 
Designation Name Qulaifications Specializations Email Resume
Professor (Head) Amar P. Garg M.Sc., Ph.D. Microbiology/ Biofertilizers/ Plant Protection/ Boiotech Email Resume
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Syllabus of M.Phil. (Microbiology) and M.Sc. (Microbiology) C.C.S. University, Meerut
M.Phil. (Microbiology) syllabus
All general rules and regulations for this one year course of M.Phil. in Microbiology shall be the same as for other M.Phil. courses in the Faculty of Science in the University. The additional rules and regulations are being framed as follows :
 
COURSE                                     External Examination            Internal Examination
                                                           Max. Marks                          Max. Marks

Microbiological Techniques                     80                                           20
Biostatistics & Bioinformatics                  80                                           20
Microbial Technology                               80                                           20
Clinical Microbiology                                 80                                           20
Project (two semester) 
The pattern of examination shall be the same as for other subjects in the Faculty of Science. The question paper shall be based on the prescribed syllabus and it will be set by the external examiner in consultation with the internal examiner. A candidate is required to attempt 5 questions over a period of three hours. The answer books shall be evaluated by the external as well as internal examiner independently and the final marks awarded to the candidate shall be based on average of the two. For the project work, the candidate shall be allotted a topic on which he/she shall do the research and shall submit the project report which shall be evaluated jointly by the external and internal examiner appointed by the University. The division shall be awarded based on the total percentage of marks secured by the candidate as per the existing rules of Faculty of Science.
 
Course MP 101: Microbiological Techniques
Unit I: Principle & application of light, phase contrast, fluorescence, scanning & transmission electron microscope, Cytophotometry & flow cytometry, fixation & staining.
Unit II: Principles & applications of gel-filteration, ion-exchange & affinity chromatography: Thin layer & gas chromatography; High pressure liquid (HPLC)  chromatography; Electrophoresis & electrofocussing; Ultracentrifugation (velocity & Buoyant density).
Unit III: Principles & techniques of nucleic acid hybridization Cot curves: Sequencing of proteins & nucleic acids; Southern, Northern & Western blotting techniques; Polymerase chain reaction; Methods for measuring nucleic acid & protein interactions.
Unit IV: Principles of biophysical methods used for analysis of biopolymer structure, X-ray Crystallography, fluorescence, UV, ORD/CD, Visible, NMR & ESR spectroscopy; Hydrodynamic methods; Atomic absorption & Plasma emission spectroscopy.
Unit V
(a) Principles & applications of tracer techniques in biology; Radiation dosimetry; Radioactive isotopes & half life of isotopes; Effect of radiation on biological system; Autoradiography; Cerenkov radiation; Liquid scintillation spectrometry.         
(b) Microbiological Techniques for the estimation of biomass, number and activity in soil and from organic matter.
 
Course MP 102: Biostatistics & Bioinformatis
Unit I: Probability theory: Classical and Statistical definitions, conditional probability, Bayes’ Theorem. Introduction to Random variable and Mathematical expectation. Probability Distributions: Binomial, Multinomial, Poisson and Normal Distribution.
Unit II: Correlation and regression: Scatter Diagram, Coefficient of Correlation, Rank correlation. Lines of Regression. Multiple correlation and Regression, Curve fitting: Linear relationship, Power Laws, Exponential Laws, Method of least squares.
Unit III: Analysis of variance for one way and two way classification. Principles of Design of experiment: Replication, Randomization and Local control. Statistical analysis of Completely randomized Design, Randomized block design and Latin square design. Analysis of Covariance.
Unit IV: Computer System Definition; Components( Input/Output unit, Control Unit, Primary Storage Unit, Arithmetic and Logic Unit); Types of Memory(Magnetic Core Memory, Semiconductor Memory ie RAM & ROM, Bubble Memory); Communication Pathways (Control Bus, Address Bus, Data Bus); Classification of Computers (according to logic & size), Generation of Computers; Number System & Logic Gate Application of Number Systems (Decimal Number System, Binary Number System, Hexadecimal Number System) & Conversions  (Decimal to Binary, Binary to Decimal, Decimal to Hexadecimal, Hexadecimal to Binary); Addition operation in Binary Number System; Introduction to Logic Gates(AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR); Logical Operation in Binary Number System (AND, OR & NOT).
Unit V- Biological Database- Primary Database & Secondary Database; Submitting  Sequence  to the Database and Information Retrieval through ENTREZ; Sequence Databases(EMBL, GenBank, DDBJ, SWISS-PROT, PIR, TrEMBL); Protein Family/Domain Databases (PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS & SMART), & Structure Database (PDB), BLAST Programs.
Course MP 201: Microbial Technology
Unit I: Characters of industrial strains. Strategies for selection ( primary screening & secondary screening) & improvement through random mutation, genetic recombination & genetic engineering. Different methods of preserving industrial strains.
Unit II: Microbial  growth kinetics in batch, continuous & fed-batch culture. Measurement of growth (cell number, direct & indirect methods). Raw materials selection & medium development for industrial fermentation.  
Unit III: Sterilization: kinetics of thermal death of microorganisms, batch & continuous sterilization. Instrumentation of small scale bioreactors. Product recovery.
Unit IV: Bioremediation: biodegradability – Petroleum hydrocarbons, Halocarbons, Chlorophenols, Nitroaromatics. Applicability of bioremediation: Intrinsic bioremediation, Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation. Applications of  bioremediation to various contaminants  & sites:Hydrocarbon-contaminated soils & aquifers, Halocarbon-contaminated soils & aquifers, Marine oil spills & Metal-contaminated soils .  
Unit V: Biofertilizers: Rhizobium spp. , Azotobacter & Azospirillum , Blue-green algae & Azolla, Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. Large scale production. Advantages & limitations of biofertilizers for Indian agriculture. Biocontrols agents: Bioinsecticides, Bioherbicides, Disease control . Advantages & limitations in Indian agriculture.
 
Course MP 202: Clinical Microbiology
Unit I: Specimens: collection, transport & storage. Prevention & control of laboratory acquired-infections. Investigation of food borne & water borne disease outbreaks. Manual  & auoto matedsystems for microbial identification, immunoassays for the diagnosis of infectious diseases, molecular detection and identification of microorganisms. 
Unit II: Bacteriology : Gram positive cocci – Algorithm for identification of aerobic gram positive cocci ; Staphylococcus and Micrococcus; Streptococcus; Enterococcus . Gram positive rods – Algorithm for identification of aerobic gram positive rods ; Coryneforms; Listeria ; Mycobacterium ; Nocardia. Gram negative rods- algorithm for identification of aerobic gram negative rods; Klebseilla ; Salmonella and Shigella ; Neisseria ; Haemophilus; Pseudomonas . Anaerobic bacteria algorithm for identification of anaerobic bacteria; Clostridium.            
Unit III: Virology: algorithms  for detection and identification of viruses ;  HIV ; human T cell lymphotrophic virus; Hepatitis A,B,C ,D and G viruses ; polyoma viruses ; rabies virus ; Epstein barr virus ; Varicella zoster virus ; human cytomegalovirus ; respiratory syncytial virus . 
Unit IV: Mycology: Algorithms  for detection and identification of  fungi; Candida, Cryptococcus; PneumocystisAspergillus, Fusarium & Other opportunistic fungi; Rhizopus, Rhizomucor, Absidia & Other agents of systemic & subcutaneous zygomycoses; Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccodioides, & Other dimorphic fungi causing systemic mycoses; Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton & Agents of superficial mycoses. Fungi causing Eumycotic Mycetoma. Unit V: Antimicrobial agents and susceptibility testing: Antibacterial agents , Mechanism of resistance to antimicrobial agents ,Susceptibility testing of fastidious bacteria, Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria ,Special phenotypic methods for detecting antibacterial resistance, genetic methods for detecting antibacterial and antiviral resistance gene. Antimycobacterial agents and susceptibility test Antiviral agents and susceptibility test. Antifungal agents and susceptibility test. M.Sc. (Microbiology) syllabus, C.C.S. University, Meerut
Effective from the session 2003-2004
Course no. Name of the course Internal (M.M.) External (M.M.)
  FIRST SEMESTER    
GM 101 General Microbiology 50 50
GM 102 Bacteriology 50 50
GM 103 Virology 50 50
GM 104 Phycology, Mycology & Protozoology 50 50
GM 105 Practical 100 100
  SECOND SEMESTER    
GM 201 Nutrition, Growth & Metabolism 50 50
GM 202 Molecular Biology 50 50
GM 203 Microbial Biochemistry 50 50
GM 204 tatistics & BioinformaticsBios 50 50
GM 205 Practical 100 100
  THIRD SEMESTER    
GM 301 Medical Microbiology 50 50
GM 302 Immunology & Clinical Microbiology 50 50
GM 303 Agricultural Microbiology 50 50
GM 304 Industrial Microbiology 50 50
GM 305 Practical 100 100
  FOURTH SEMESTER    
GM 401 Environmental Microbiology 50 50
GM 402 Genetic Engineering 50 50
GM 403 Microbial Genetics 50 50
GM 404 Food, Feed & Dairy Microbiology 50 50
GM 405 Practical 100 100
Total Marks    2400
                          
All rules for examination pattern, pass percentage and admissions shall be the same as for the post-graduate courses in the Faculty of Science on the University campus. Minimum eligibility for admission in this two year M.Sc. (Microbiology) course shall be B.Sc. (Biology). There shall be 50% internal and 50% external assessment in all aforesaid courses. The pattern of internal assessment shall be decided by the Department, however, it will be based on tests, quizzes, seminars, term papers, group discussions and home assignments. The Department shall be free to alter the sequence of the courses depending upon the resources available.
 
Course GM I01: General Microbiology

Unit I: Basic principles and methods of sterilization; control of microorganisms by physical methods: heat, filtration and radiation; chemical methods: phenolics, alcohols, halogens, heavy metals, quartenary ammonium compounds, aldehydes and sterilizing gases; evaluation of antimicrobial agent effectiveness. Principle and functioning of LAF.
Unit II: Preparation of culture media; types of culture media: simple media, complex media, synthetic media, enriched media, selective media, indicator media, differential media, anaerobic media; Pure culture techniques: streak plate, pour plate and spread plate method; maintenance of pure culture; methods of preservation of various microbes.
Unit III: Microscopy: Staining techniques: Simple, Gram, Capsule, Flagella, Endospore, Nuclear, Acid fast. Specimen preparation and basic principles for the examination of microbes by light, phase contrast, dark field, confocal, fluorescent and electron (transmission and scanning) microscopy; Micrometry and microdensitometry.
Unit IV: Basic principles of Colorimetry and Spectrophotometry; Fluorimetry, Flame photometry and atomic absorption Spectrophotometry; Chromatography (paper, thin layer, column, partition, gel filtration, ion-exchange and affinity chromatography); GLC and HPLC.
Unit V: Principles and applications of Electrophoresis (one and two dimensional for proteins and DNA); Iso-electric focussing; pH and Buffers; Autoradiography, X-Ray Diffraction; Centrifugation; Ultracentifugation; Dialysis and Ultrafiltration; Lyophilization in microbiological studies.
Note :
The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definition.

Course GM 102: Bacteriology
Unit I :  Discovery of microbial world; History of Microbiology; Scope and relevance of Microbiology;  role of microbes in disease; Current thoughts on microbial evolution including the origin of life;
Unit II : Current status of microbes in the living world, Haeckel’s three kingdom concept, Whittaker’s five kingdom concept, three domain concept of Carl Woese, eight kingdom system of classification of Cavalier Smith;  Modern trends in the classification of microbial world including 16s rRNA sequencing, Numerical and molecular taxonomy; Classification and salient features of bacteria according to the Bergey’s Manual of Determinative bacteriology.
Unit III:   (a) Morphology and ultrastructure of bacteria, size, shape and arrangement of bacteria; structure and chemical composition of Cell walls of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria; Structure, composition and function of cell membrane; Composition and function of capsule; Structure and function of flagella, pilli, gas vesicles, cytoplasmic matrix, reserve food materials; chromosomes, carboxysomes, magnetosomes and phycobilisomes; nucleoid and endospores. (b) Reproduction and Recombination in Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
Unit IV: Cultivation of bacteria-aerobic, anaerobic; nutritional types of bacteria, culture media used, growth curve, generation time, growth kinetics, synchronous growth; batch and continuous culture; measurement of growth; factors affecting growth; control of bacteria by physical and chemical agents; preservation methods Unit V: (a) General characters of Archaeobacteria; cell wall of Archaeobacteria, classification of Archaeobacteria, General characteristics of Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, Methanomicrobium, Methanosarcina, Halobacterium, Halococcus, Thermoplasma and Thermococcus; Adaptations and role of Archeobacteria in the evolution of microbial world. (b) General characters of Cyanobacteria; Classification of Cyanobacteria; Their ultrastructure and reproduction; economic importance of Cyanobacteria.
Note :
The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
 
Course GM 103: Virology
Unit I: History of discovery of viruses; nature of viruses; General characters of viruses; Morphology; capsid and their arrangement; Nomenclature and classification of viruses; Cultivation of viruses: Animal inoculation, Embryonated eggs, Cell culture.
Unit II: General characters and ultrastructure of major  plant viruses : Tobamovirus group (TMV); Tymovirus group (Circular mosaic virus); Tomato spotted wilt virus; Cauliflower mosaic virus. Effects of these viruses on plants and various histological and physiological changes induced due to viral infection.
Unit III: General characters and ultrastructure of  major  human and animal viruses : Adenovirus, Poxvirus (DNA containing), Picornavirus, Retrovirus (RNA containing). Unit IV: Bacteriophages: Structure and life cycle patterns of T-even phages; one step growth curve; Bacteriophage typing; Structure of Cyanophages, Mycophages.
Unit V: (a) General characters and structure of viroids, their common plant diseases and control; General characters of Prions, their structure and major diseases caused by them; controversies about their nature. (b) Purification and quantitative assay of viruses; Infection and replication; Transmission and control of various plant and animal viruses.
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
 
Course GM 104: Phycology, Mycology & Protozoology
Unit I : General characters of eukaryotic microbes; Ultrastructure and organization of a typical eukaryotic cell; classification of eukaryotic microbes; Evolutionary relationship of each group based on modern systems of classification.
Unit II : Current status of fungi; their classification with reference to Ainsworth; General characters, somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of  Myxomycota, Mastigomycotina.
Unit III: General characters, somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of  microbiologically important genera of Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina; Heterothallism; sex hormones in fungi; physiological specialization and phylogeny of fungi. Parasexual life cycle; Symbiotic associations of fungi with algae; Economic importance of fungi.
Unit IV: General characters of algae; classification of algae; Somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Algal nutrition, ecology and biotechnology.
Unit V: (a) General characters of protozoans; Structure and reproduction of microbiologically important genera of protozoans: Entamoeba, Giardia, Trichomonas, Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium. (b) General characters of microbiologically important Nematodes: Ancylostoma, Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator ; Cestodes: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Diphyllobothrium, Echinococcus granulosus and Trematodes: Paragonimus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosoma.
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
Course GM 201: Microbial Growth, Nutrition and Metabolism

Unit I: (a) Nutritional requirements of major groups of microbes ( bacteria & fungi); Nutritional uptake; transport across the membranes and cell wall (diffusion, passive diffusion, active transport, group translocation and iron uptake) (b) Physiology of growth and kinetics, Growth curve, generation time, growth kinetics measurement of growth (biomass, turbidity, dry weight, protein content), environmental factors affecting microbial growth.
Unit II: Nitrogen fixation in symbiotic and free living system, oxygen and hydrogen regulation of nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification and ammonifying bacteria, Pathway of nitrate assimilation in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic systems, transamination and deamination reactions.
Unit III : Photosynthesis:  Absorption of light, photosynthetic ans accessory pigments, ( chlorophyll, bacteriochlorophyll, carotenoides, phycobilliproteins),Oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthesis in prokaryotes, non cyclic electron transport; phosphorylation; Calvin cycle; effect of light, temperature pH and CO2 on photosynthesis; Photosynthetic yield and Photorespiration.
Unit IV : Respiratory metabolism: Glycolytic pathway of carbohydrates breakdown, embden Meyer hoff pathway,Kreb's cycle and Entner-Duodoroff pathway, Phospho-ketolase pathway; Pentose phosphate pathway; oxidative and substrate level phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glyoxylate cycle, fermentation of carbohydrates, homo and heterolactic fermentation.
Unit V : Microbial metabolism: Anabolism, catabolism; Sulphur metabolism, Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines.
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.

Course GM 202: Molecular Biology

Unit I: Nucleic acids as genetic information carriers: experimental evidence. DNA structure: historical aspects & current concepts, melting of DNA, types of DNA. DNA replication in prokaryotes: types of polymerases, steps: initiation, elongation (Asymmetric & dimeric nature of DNA Polymerase III & simultaneous synthesis of leadind & lagging Strands), termination. DNA replication in eukaryotes: types of polymerases, replication origins & initiation, steps involved, synthesis of telomeric DNA.
Various modes of replication. Superhelicity in DNA, linking number, topological properties, mechanism of action of topoisomerases.
Unit II: Structural features of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA). Transcription in prokaryotes: RNA polymerase, promoter, steps: initiation, elongation & termination, antitermination. Trancription in eukaryotes: types of RNA polymerases ( I, II & III), promoter, enhancer & silencer sites for initiation, transcription factors, steps: initiation, elongation & termination. Inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Post trancriptional modification of mRNA: capping, polyadenylation & splicing (group I introns, group II introns, hn RNA using spliceosome/snurposome). Ribozymes.
Unit III: Regulation of gene expression : operon concept, negatve & positive regulation, instability of bacterial mRNA, inducers and corepressors, catabolite repression. Negative regulation-E. coli. lac operon; positive regulation- E. coli. ara operon; regulation by attenuation- his and trp operons.
Unit IV: Anti-termination-N protein and nut sites in lambda. Global regulatory responses; heat shock response, stringent response and regulation by small molecules such as cAMP and ppGpp. Regulation of rRNA and tRNA synthesis.
Unit V: Basic features of the genetic code. Protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; steps-details of initiation, elongation & termination, roles of various factors in the above steps, inhibitors of protein synthesis. Synthesis of exported proteins on membrane bound ribosomes: signal hypothesis. Post translational modification of proteins.

Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.

Course GM 203 : Microbial Biochemistry
Unit I: Carbohydrates: classification and properties, Chemical structure and properties of starch, cellulose and hemicellulose. Unit II: General characters of fats; Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids; biosynthesis of fatty acids, oxidation of fatty acids; Unit III : Structure of proteins, methods of purification and sequencing of proteins, synthesis of peptides, properties of proteins (acid-base property and solubility); Structure of amino acids, classification of essential amino acids based on polarity. Unit IV: Laws of thermodynamics, free energy & reactions, oxidation reduction reactions; Classification and nomenclature of enzymes; mechanism of enzyme action, enzyme inhibition, allosteric enzymes, multi enzyme complex and lysozyme; coenzymes, enzyme kinetics. Unit V: (a) Fractionation of microbial cells; Separation of different cell organelles and chemical analysis of microbial cells for carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, lipids and nucleic acids. (b) Outlines of structure and classification of secondary metabolites like – alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids and vitamins. Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
Course GM 204: Biostatistics & Bioinformatics
Unit I : Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency: mean, median and mode. Measures of dispersion: Mean deviation and standard deviation. Correlation and regression: Scatter Diagram, Coefficient of Correlation, Rank correlation. Lines of Regression.
Unit II: Probability: Basic concepts related to probability theory, classical probability.  Probability Distributions: Introduction and simple properties of Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distributions and their applications in biology.    
Unit III : ; Testing of hypotheses: Some basic concepts, Errors in hypothesis testing; critical region, Students t-test for the significance of population mean and the difference between two population means; Paired t-test; Chi square test for population variance, goodness of fit and for the independence of two attributes in a contingency table; F-test for the equality of two population variance; Analysis of variance- One-way and two-way analysis of variance.
Unit IV : Overview of computer systems: Introduction; Components of computer and number system; Flow chart; Comprehension of C and its programming; Basics for operating system (MS-DOS, WINDOWS); MS-WORD, Power Point. Introduction of DBMS.
Unit V : Introduction to Internet; Internet basics for microbiologists (Electronic mail, Electronic mail servers, Downloading files with anonymous FTP, Gopher, The World wide Web and Mosaic and Genome data base); Sequence data bases and obtaining BLAST Documentation and Help.
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
 
Course GM 301: Medical Microbiology

Unit I : Classification of medically important bacteria; Normal flora of human body, role of the resident flora; collection of clinical samples and laboratory diagnosis of important bacterial infections, pathogenic microorganisms.
Unit II: Bacteriology: Important human diseases caused by Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Pneumococcus; Neisseria; Bacillus; Corynebacterium; Clostridium; Organisms belonging to Enterobacteriaceae; Pseudomonas; Yersinia; Haemophilus; Mycobacterium; Antibacterial agents and susceptibility test;
Unit III: Virology: Collection of clinical sample and laboratory diagnosis of important viral diseases ; Mumps; Measles; Influenza; Adenovirus; Enterovirus; Rhinovirus; Poxvirus; Hepatitis virus; Herpesvirus ; AIDS; Antiviral drugs; Viral vaccines; Interferons;Tumor viruses, antiviral agents & susceptibility test.
Unit IV: Mycology:  Classification of medically relevant fungi: Collection of clinical sample and laboratory diagnosis of important human fungal diseases: Phycomycosis; Candidiasis; Dermatophytosis; Aspergillosis; Otomycosis; Cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses; Systemic mycoses; Oppurtunistic mycoses; Antifungal agents & the susceptibility test.
Unit V: Parasitology: Important diseases caused by intestinal and urogenital protozoa: Entamoeba; Giardia; Trichomonas; Blood and tissue protozoa; Plasmodium; Trypanosoma; Leishmania; Cestodes: Taenia; Trematodes: Schistosoma; Paragonimus; Nematodes: Ascaris; Ancylostoma; Necator; their laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention, antiparasitic agenta and susceptibility test.
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.

 
Course GM 302: Immunology and Clinical Microbiology
Unit I: Introduction to the immune system: Innate immunity; anatomic, physiological, phagocytic & inflammatory barriers. Adaptive immunity; natural  & artificial immunity. Cells involved in immune response: lymphoid lineage (producing B & T lymphocytes) & Myeloid lineage (phagocytes: macrophages, neutrophils & eosinophils. And  auxillary cells; basophils, mast cells & platelets). Organs involved in immune system: primary & secondary lymphoid organs. Antigens: preparation of antigens, types of antigens- haptens, super antigens & clusters of differentiation molecules(CDs). Immunization of test animals,  hyperimmunization.
Unit II: Immunoglobulins: structure & types of immunoglobulins, genetic diversity of immunoglobulins, catalytyic antibodies. Cytokines: interferons (α, β & γ), TNF, interleukins (1-16), hematopoietins &  chemokines. B-cell biology & T-cell biology (major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules). Vaccines and Immunization; Types of Vaccines and their characteristics. Immune disorders ; hypersensitivities , autoimmune diseases ,transplantation(tissue ) Rejection , Immunodeficiencies . 
Unit III: Monoclonal antibodies: hybridoma technology, applications of monoclonal antibodies. Antigen-Antibody reactions in vitro: agglutination reactions (Widal, Haemagglutination), precipitation reactions (Immunodiffusion, Immuno electrophorectic method), Immunoblotting, ELISA, RIA, fluorescence immunosorbent assay, immunoelectronmicroscopy.
Unit IV: Specimens: collection, handling, transport. Prevention & control of  laboratory acquired infections. Identification of microorganisms: Different staining techniques (simple, Gram’s staining, Ziehl-Neelsen method for AFB, Flurochrome staining, Leishman’s staining, Geimsa’s staining & special staining methods to demonstrate granules, capsules & spores). Growth & biochemical characteristic. Investigation of food borne & water borne disease outbreaks.
Unit V: Rapid methods of identification: immunologic techniques, bacteriophage typing & molecular methods (Nucleic acid–based detection methods, GLC, plasmid fingerprinting. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: Diffusion methods & dilution methods), prophylactic immunization. Nosocomial infections. 
 
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions
 
Course GM 303 : Agricultural Microbiology
Unit I: Microorganisms as biofertilizers : Biofertilizers and symbiotic associations :  Rhizobium - taxonomy, physiology, host-Rhizobium interaction, mass cultivation; Associative and non symbiotic association-Azospirillum , Azotobacter, Cyanobacteria Mycorrhiza and actinorrhiza in plant nutrition and stress tolerance; Interaction of mycorrhiza with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas; Commercial production of biofertilizers; Their applications and limitations for Indian agriculture.
Unit II:   (a) Disease forecasting and basic principles of plant disease control.
(b) Pathology, etiology and control of economically important crop diseases of wheat, rice, barley, maize, sugarcane, vegetables and pulses caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses.
Unit III : Microorganisms as biopesticides: Microbiology of plant surfaces; Principles and mechanism of biological control; biocontrol agents for insect pest and weed control. Commercial production of biopesticides with reference to Bacillus thuringiensis; integrated pest management; Their applications and limitations for Indian agriculture.
Unit IV : Soil microbiology: Soil as a habitat for microorganisms; Soil enzymes, Soil water & microbial activity, Soil microorganism & nutrient cycle. Soil fertility and management of agricultural soils. Microbiology of composting and green manuring; reclamation of barren lands using microbial technology. Microbiology of plant surfaces: Rhizosphere, phylloplane and rhizoplane microbes & their interaction with plants.
Unit V: (a) Microbial Diseases of farm animals; their prevention and control. Improvement of nutritive value of cattle feed using microbial activities.
(b) Management & storage of agricultural products, post-harvest diseases, their prevention and control.
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
Course GM 304: Industrial Microbiology
Unit I : Sources and characters of industrially potent microbes, their isolation, purification & maintenance. Screening of useful strains: primary screening & secondary screening. Strain improvement through random mutation (random & rational selection), genetic recombination & genetic engineering.Microbial growth kinetics in batch, continuous & fed-batch fermentation process .
Unit II: Aerobic bioreactor: principles & designing. Other  types of bioreactors. Raw materials used in fermentation media. Solid state fermentation & submerged fermentation: their advantages & disadvantages.Microbial transformations with special reference to steroids& alkaloids. Primary & secondary metabolites. Commercial production of antibiotics with special reference to penicillin, streptomycin and their derivatives.            
Unit III : Microbiology & production of alcoholic beverages: malt beverages, distilled beverages, wine & champagne. Commercial production of organic acids like acetic, lactic, citric, & gluconic acids. Commercial production of important amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine & tryptophan), insulin & vitamins (vitaminB12, riboflavin & vitamin A).
Unit IV: Immobilization of microbial enzymes and whole cells and their applications in industries. Bioprocess Engineering: Downstream processing, various steps for large scale protein purification.
Unit V: Industrial enzymes production: Cellulases, Xylanases, Pectinases, Amylases, Lipases & Proteases and their applications. Bioconversion of waste for fuels (ethanol and methane). Mushroom cultivation. Petroleum microbiology. Patent protection for biological inventions. Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
Course GM 401 : Environmental Microbiology
Unit I :  Microbes in extreme environments: Environment induced genetic and physiological adaptations in microbes; Characteristic features of thermophiles, psychrophiles, methanogens, methylotrophs, acidophiles, alkalophiles,halophiles. Unit II : Biodegradation and Biogeochemical cycling: Microbial degradation of lignocellulosic substances, keratin and chitin; Microbes in nutrient cycling with special reference to carbon, phosphorous, sulfur and nitrogen cycles.
Unit III : Biodeterioration: Biodeterioration of properties of cultural heritage; microbial deterioration of paper, textile, wood, paint and metal corrosion. Principal methods for their protection.
Unit IV : (a) Bioremediation: Microbial degradation of pesticides; hydrocarbons; clean up of sites polluted with oil spills, heavy metals and chlorinated solvents; biological treatment of effluents of sugar, pulp and paper industry.
(b) Recovery of minerals and metals from ores.
Unit V : (a) Techniques in environmental microbiology: Methods for determination of numbers, biomass and activities of microbes in soil, water, air and on plant surfaces and dead organic materials. Brief account of air borne diseases of microbes and their preventive measures (b)Microbes in waste disposal: Microbes in solid waste and sewage treatment systems. Disinfection of potable water supplies; Bacterial indicators of water safety;  Microbial assessment of water quality; Standards for tolerable levels of fecal contamination. Major water borne diseases and their control measures.
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
Course GM 402: Genetic Engineering

Unit I: Basic steps of r-DNA technology, Enzymes used in r-DNA technology. Restriction endonucleases and their types (I, II & III), restriction mapping. Ligation- joining of DNA molecules together: blunt end ligation, joining with linkers, adapters & homopolymer tailing.
Unit II: Cloning vectors: general properties, plasmids, bacteriophages, cosmids, shuttle vectors, bacterial artificial chromosomes. Eukaryotic cloning vectors for yeast, higher plants & animal cells.
Unit III: Introduction of recombinant vectors into bacterial & non bacterial  cells. .Selection of clones: colony hybridization, plaque hybridization, immunochemical methods & southern blotting. Gene libraries: genomic library (Shot gun approach), c DNA library (Different methods for synthesizing c DNA molecules).
Unit IV: Expression vectors for expressing foreign genes in E.coli:problems associated with the production of r- proteins in E.coli, production of r protein by eukaryotic cells. Non-radioactive & radioactive labeling of probes. RFLP, DNA finger printing RAPD, northern blotting. Unit V: PCR methods & applications, DNA sequencing methods: dideoxy and chemical methods, strategies for sequencing large DNA fragments, automated sequencing.  Applications of gene techonology: production of pharmaceuticals- humulin, somatotropin, somatostatin, recombinant vaccines.
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.

Course GM 403: Microbial Genetics
Unit1:   Fine structure of a gene in prokaryote; the rII locus, complementation test ,
 recombination mapping, deletion mapping, cistron, recon, muton.. Mutation: spontaneous mutation , Induced mutagenesis- mutagens(physical mutagens: non ionizing radiation ; chemical mutagens: Base analogues , alkylating agents, deaminating agents, intercalating agents & others), molecular mechanism of mutagens.
Unit II: Suppressor mutation: intragenic mutation & intergenic mutation. Detection & isolation of mutants. DNA repair mechanism: repair by direct reversal, excision repair, recombinational repair & SOS repair.
Unit III: Recombination: general principles. Plasmids (types of  plasmids- F plasmids, R plasmids, Col plasmids & Ti plasmid ), control of copy no. and incompatibility. Gene transfer mechanisms: transformation, transduction, conjugation. Mapping and sequencing the genome. Unit IV: Transposable element: mechanism of transposition. Bacteriophages, lytic phages-T7 and T4. lysogenic phages-λ & P1. M13 & φX 174. Recombination & genome Mapping in viruses.
Unit V:   Microbial genetic & design of vaccines, BCG and design of vaccine for TB & leprosy. DNA vaccines design & advantages.
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
Course GM 404: Food, Feed & Dairy Microbiology
Unit I: Important microbes involved in spoilage of food, meat, poultry, vegetables and dairy products; food preservation. Microbial deterioration of cereals, pulses, fish and sea-foods during storage.
Unit II: Toxins : Bacterial and mycotoxins, Important microbes secreting toxins, chemical nature of important toxins; their role in food poisoning; physiology and mechanism of action, modification and detoxification; prevention and control of toxin contamination. Unit III: Microbial biomass and Single cell proteins; Uses of microbes in meats and poultry products, vegetables etc. Use of microbial enzymes in food;low calorie sweetners, Flavour modifiers; Food additives;  Food quality monitoring, biosensors and immuno assays. Indian fermented foods.
Unit IV: Role of microbes in milk and dairy products: Microbiological examination of milk, standard plate count, direct microscopic count and reductase test, composition of milk, sources of contamination of milk, types of microbes in milk, pasteurization of milk, ability of milk to cause disease; Manufacture of cheeses, butter, yoghurt and fermented milk.
Unit V: Feed for cattles, use of microbes and microbial enzymes in the improvement of nutritive quality of feed; leaf protein extract.
Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4  questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of  half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
 
 
Job Opportunities
In industries (Pharmaceutical, Sugar, Textile, Leather, Paper, Food, and Chemical, etc.), Government and Private universities / colleges, and R&D institutions related to agriculture, medical and environmental studies, in central and state govt. departments, as Research Scientists/Post Doctoral Fellows in India and abroad.
 
Placements
Our students have obtained jobs in Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical, Sugar, Textile, Leather, Paper, Food, Brewing and Chemical, industries (Ranbaxy, Himalaya Biotech, Charak Pharmaceuticals, Baxal Pharmaceutical, Panacea Biotech, Adarsh Bewerages, etc); in Government and Private R&D institutions related to agriculture, medical and environmental studies (DRDO, INMAS, CIMAP, AIIMS, NII, New Delhi, IGIB, New Delhi, IARI, New Delhi, IITs, CDFD, Hyderabad, IMTECH, Chandigarh, etc.); in central and state govt. departments; in Government and Private universities and colleges; and as Research Scientists/Post Doctoral Fellows/Research students in abroad such as Germany, USA, UK, Canada, Taiwan, etc.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     
   
 
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